The most important thing you have to think about here is that Illustrator files are vector-based images, not pixel images. Vector based images are great for creating the geometry in 3D ProAnimator. However, any time you want to apply a material to an object in ProAnimator you need to make the image a pixel image. You can do this simply by opening your Illustrator project in Illustrator and Clicking File > Save For Web... and selecting .png or .jpg. The other important part is that you want your image to be larger than 750x750 pixels. If it's too small then the image might look blurry or fuzzy.
Hope this helps. If you have any other questions be sure to ask.
There's a way to do it in After Effects that should help you out.
Put your vector image in a comp by itself, but make that comp huge, like 4000x4000 (or whatever would fit the ratio of your vector image). Drag your vector image into that comp and scale it up so that it's the same size as the comp. Now, click the "Continuously Rasterize" button. It's the little square on your layer underneath the icon that looks like a little flash of light (see image below). That button will make your vector image look nice and sharp even if it's scaled up a large amount.
In a different comp, set up your ProAnimator layer and drag in the vector image comp to use as the layer map. Be sure to use the vector layer comp instead of using the vector image directly. Since your image is now very large, it should look clean and sharp on your 3D object inside of ProAnimator, even if you're zoomed in very close.