Hi Nico, There are a few elements going on there. You need to have a basic understanding of how After Effects works.
You might find the general principles here useful to add movement to the scale of the background image: http://www.videocopilot.net/tutorials/audio_to_animation/
There is also a program called Red Giant Trapcode Sound Keys which does a lot more.
Also look up the Generate/ Audio Spectrum and Audio Waveform effects in After effects which give you some initial ideas on how to go about creating the circular audio signal on the lower circle.
The flying debris is probably stock footage blended over the background image; this free footage might get you started: http://www.videocopilot.net/blog/?s=flour
There are also some simple particles flying around - probably a twinkling night sky tutorial would help you there.