You can get pretty hi-rez Spherical Earth maps from NASA; I don't have the URL handy, I'm afraid. That's the easy part.
Now, the big question: how much experience do you have with After Effects?
This is pretty much all 2D work. You could do it by working with multiple precomps using CC Sphere, each with a different radius, with the Earth map sphere at the center. In the center Earth Sphere, you'd key out the oceans, and use the Fill effect for one color, and use a comp-sized solid with the opacity turned down for the semi-transparency. You'll need to have two instances of the red stripe precomps making the inside and the outside of the spheres above & below the center sphere layer. Animate the red stripes in the precomps. The grayscale background would simply be additional spheres scaled up.