Your question is very unclear, but if you're asking how to replace source files used in an AE project with updated versions of those same files without losing the effects applied to those files within AE ...
Right click the file in the project panel, select "replace footage", go to the updated version on your hard drive and open that new file. AE will replace every instance of that file used within the project and all of the effects will remain the same in every comp and precomp ... as long as the updates to the source file don't affect how the effects work (i.e., if "updated" file is different pixel dimensions from the original or something similar).
On a similar note,
I accidentally imported the same PNG twice and used them a few times each throughout the projects. I want to delete one (PNG 1) and have the other one (PNG 2) cover the holes it leaves. How do I replace all the instances of PNG 1 with PNG 2?