Yes, this could produced in After Effects without third-party tools, but it would be painstaking work if done by hand. I'd guess this was originally produced in C4D with Mograph tools.
You might get close by layering and time-reversing many instances of the Shatter effect [link] or CC Pixel Polly.
You may be able to use Andrew Kramer's Shatterize tutorial [link] as a starting point (though you will need to alter it quite a bit to get the look you're going for).
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