I have a flat rectangular cube (dynamic body) falling onto a plane (collider body), but there are a few frames where the corners of the cube sink through the plane. It resolves correctly, but obviously no part of the cube should pass through the plane.
Then, when I set the initial velocity of the cube of the cube to -10m, it passes right through the plane.
Then I changed some of the bounce and friction settings on the cube and plane, and it started working (albeit with a few corners sinking through plane like before). I didn't think bounce and friction would affect the dynamics like that.
Then, I set the initial velocity to -15m, and the card passed through the plane again.
Try increasing the "Steps per Frame" in the Expert tab of the Dynamics Tab in the Project Settings.
In order for a collision to be registered C4D needs to know how often to check for collisions. By default it does this 5 times per frame. If the object is moving very quickly it may not catch the collision.
The Maximum Solver Iterations per Step and Error Threshold values can have an impact as well but that's more of a corner case. It essentially improves the quality of the calculation on each subframe step so it's not appropriate in cases where NO collision is being detected and more appropriate if the force created by the bounce or collision seems inaccurate.