I've seen past posts on this that mainly went unresolved or had workarounds. It seems that this framerate thing just doesn't work too well or is anything but straightforward.
I have a scene in C4d that was made to work to remapped AE footage. I imported the AE footage into c4d, rendering out at the same framerate (23.976) and made it an animated texture just to use as a reference to adjust the c4d animation's keyframes to.
I set the animation settings to "exact frame" and moved everything back to frame 0.
The resulting c4d animation appears to be out of synch to the rest of the AE comp. Everything in AE is 23.976 frames. Everything in C4d is the same as well.
It seems that the timing in the animated texture (the ae footage image sequence) isn't being set correctly in the c4d settings and so the whole render is off.
The entire sequence is about 8 seconds long.
I also rendered the footage directly from c4d into an image sequence for after effects (23.976) and it does not align with the rest of the animation layers also rendered directly from c4d at the same framerate!
1. Looks fine in c4d timeline, viewport etc
2. render from c4d at same framerate
3. Nothing aligns in AE
The issue may stem from the fact that AE will import image sequences at 30fps by default, you will have to interperate footage 1st to set the correct frame rate, or change the default in your preferences if you plan to work with mostly 24fps. hope that helps!