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Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync

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Messab Rakadle
Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 1:00:09 am

I filmed a commercial at 23.97 but had to convert it to 29.97 for broadcast (h.264, 1080, AAC). The footage seemed a touch blurry and the sound sync seemed a little off. I can't tell if the burry image made the sound look off or what.

So my question is:
Does exporting 23.97 to 29.97 cause image or sound issues? And if so, is there a way to reduce or eliminate that?

Thank you.


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Shane Ross
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 2:59:12 am

[Messab Rakadle] "I filmed a commercial at 23.97 but had to convert it to 29.97 for broadcast (h.264, 1080, AAC)."

Interlaced, I hope. Because that will hide the frame rate conversion well. 24p to 30p will not. Frames will repeat, and it'll look skippy.

[Messab Rakadle] "The footage seemed a touch blurry"

When you compress to h.264, that causes information loss. It won't be as clear as your master.

[Messab Rakadle] "nd the sound sync seemed a little off. "

Throughout? or does it start to go off sync and get worse?

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Messab Rakadle
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 3:06:07 am

I used a canon 5d mark ii with the video set to 23.97 (24).

I don't know what interlaced means. Is that an expert setting or how I should have recorded the footage?

The voices seems consistently off. I think is the extras frames that create that odd effect.

I saw something called frame blending. Not sure if that's an option I should use or just shoot the next one in 29.97. I'd prefer not to though. Not a huge fan of that.


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Shane Ross
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 3:14:35 am

[Messab Rakadle] "I used a canon 5d mark ii with the video set to 23.97 (24)."

Then you shot 24p at 23.98. Progressive. That's fine.

[Messab Rakadle] "I don't know what interlaced means. Is that an expert setting or how I should have recorded the footage?"

You need to bone up then. If you are delivering to TV, you need to know the difference between Interlaced and Progressive.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlaced_video

It's a format of video. Televisions mainly play back interlaced video...have for decades. HD changed that, and a lot can play (and do) progressive. But pretty much if it's broadcast...it's 29.97 interlaced. So, the spec you received didn't say progressive or interlaced? Only 29.97?

Converting 23.98 to 29.97 interlaced is the best way to hide the frame rate difference. This is how shows and movies shot on film were transferred to tape for editing, and for airing:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-two_pull_down


[Messab Rakadle] "The voices seems consistently off. I think is the extras frames that create that odd effect."

Shouldn't do that. Hmmm...it looks fine at 23.98 but not at 29.97? Might be how the compression was done too. Audio should be at 48K...anything less and sync can slip.

[Messab Rakadle] "I saw something called frame blending. Not sure if that's an option I should use or just shoot the next one in 29.97. I'd prefer not to though. Not a huge fan of that."

Yeah, that's another way to try, but if there's any fast movement, you'll see really bad ghosting. I just had to deal with this...23.98 progressive to 29.97 progressive. Not fun. So, I hope your delivery spec asks for interlaced 29.97. If so...do this:

23.98 to 29.97 via Compressor:

1. Drop clips you want to convert into Compressor

2. In Compressor, select your video then right click and choose NEW TARGET WITH SETTING > APPLE > FORMATS > QUICKTIME > APPLE PRORES 422 (HQ). Or pick whatever codec you like to work with.

3. Click on that newly created compression setting to open it in the Inspector window. Click the Encoder tab. Click the Video: (Settingsā€¦) button. Make the frame rate 29.97. Check the interlaced box. Set it's drop down menu to Bottom field first. Click OK.

4. Click the Frame Controls tab. Set Frame Controls to On. Set Output Fields to Bottom first. Leave Deinterlace on Fast. Leave Adaptive Details checked. Leave Rate Conversion set to Fast. Leave the Set Duration to: on 100% and make sure it's radio button is selected and NOT the "so source frames play at 29.97 fps" button.

5. Make changes to the Filters or Geometry sections as needed. Those settings listed above are the ones critical to getting the proper 3:2 pulldown added.

6. Submit the compression, then bring the resulting video back into Final Cut Pro. Place it in a 29.97 timeline and make sure you watch it on an NTSC monitor to verify that it looks good. If you step through it frame-by-frame you should see the familiar pattern of 2 split/interlaced frames followed by 3 whole frames. This is a very important step. I tried many solutions that looked OK playing back on the computer monitor, but looked terrible on the NTSC monitor.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Messab Rakadle
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 3:25:32 am

Interlaced in reference to progressive I understand. Well, I know where to find it. The station wanted progressive so I kept the adjustments that way. I will try interlaced and see what happens.


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Shane Ross
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 5:55:21 am

If the station wants progressive, then you need to supply progressive. Just know that converting 24p to 30p isn't going to be easy. Fluid Motion does a good job, unless there is quick motion.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Messab Rakadle
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 10:41:48 am

Are commercials usually just about in 29.97 then?


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Dave LaRonde
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 2:59:19 pm

There are two general frame rates for this kind of delivery.

There is 1080 29.97i, which is 1920x1080 at 29.97 frames per second, interlaced.

There is 720p, which is 1280x720 at 59.94 frames per second, no interlacing -- whole frames only.

If you shot 24p and you have to deliver 30p, you will have difficulties with smooth motion, as Shane already said.

Dave LaRonde
Promotion Producer
KGAN (CBS) & KFXA (Fox) Cedar Rapids, IA


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Shane Ross
Re: Exporting 23.97 to 29.97 image and sound sync
on Jan 12, 2015 at 8:25:17 pm

If the frame size is 1080, then it's aired at 29.97. A lot of people shoot 23.98, but then can convert to 29.97 interlaced easily. But, if the deliverable is 29.97 progressive....then it's best to shoot 29.97p.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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