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How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown

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Kevin Blum
How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 7:21:33 pm

I've read several post about this but I'm getting conflicting information. Perhaps someone can point me in the right direction and help shed some light on the subject.

I'm cutting several 15 second interstitials that will be added as bumper acts for a Travel Ch TV show. I was given footage on SD cards that were shot at 23.98 1920x1080. The rest of the show was shot on DVCPro tape and was ingested at the proper 29.97. I'm going to be sending quicktimes of the interstitials to the other editor who will be dropping them into his timeline.

My question is, what would be the best workflow and how do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown that happens when I either edit 23.98 footage in a 29.97 timeline or covert the footage in compressor. Is there a proper way to get the correct pulldown?


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Shane Ross
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 7:29:03 pm

Use Compressor and this workflow. You will be converting to an interlaced format. That's the only way to make 23.98 to 29.97 look smooth and decent. Unless you use After Effects, but I'm not sure how to do that:

23.98 to 29.97 via Compressor:

1. Drop clips you want to convert into Compressor

2. In Compressor, select your video then right click and choose NEW TARGET WITH SETTING > APPLE > FORMATS > QUICKTIME > APPLE PRORES 422 (HQ). Or pick whatever codec you like to work with.

3. Click on that newly created compression setting to open it in the Inspector window. Click the Encoder tab. Click the Video: (Settingsā€¦) button. Make the frame rate 29.97. Check the interlaced box. Set it's drop down menu to Bottom field first. Click OK.

4. Click the Frame Controls tab. Set Frame Controls to On. Set Output Fields to Bottom first. Leave Deinterlace on Fast. Leave Adaptive Details checked. Leave Rate Conversion set to Fast. Leave the Set Duration to: on 100% and make sure it's radio button is selected and NOT the "so source frames play at 29.97 fps" button.

5. Make changes to the Filters or Geometry sections as needed. Those settings listed above are the ones critical to getting the proper 3:2 pulldown added.

6. Submit the compression, then bring the resulting video back into Final Cut Pro. Place it in a 29.97 timeline and make sure you watch it on an NTSC monitor to verify that it looks good. If you step through it frame-by-frame you should see the familiar pattern of 2 split/interlaced frames followed by 3 whole frames. This is a very important step. I tried many solutions that looked OK playing back on the computer monitor, but looked terrible on the NTSC monitor.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 7:49:32 pm

Thanks! I've seen that before as well. What's the workaround if that happens? (where It looks bad when played on NTSC monitor) Do you just run the raw file through compressor again?


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Shane Ross
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 7:58:17 pm

yes, and try tweaking the settings a little.

I really need to learn how to do this in AE.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 8:20:08 pm

I guess there's a plugin for After Effects called twixtor that will do any conversion seamlessly. Unfortunately it's $600.


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jerry wise
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 8:44:08 pm

i just converted 238gb/127 files using Shanes method. it worked great. i think there is a Droplet out there in the Cow archives that you can use.


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Dave LaRonde
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 9:20:54 pm

Yes, Twixtor is pricey, but it's worth its weight in gold if you want to go from 59.94, 29.97 or 23.976 to 25fps.

For your needs Shane's free Compressor recipe does the trick. Nice, huh?

Dave LaRonde
Former Sr. Promotion Producer
KCRG-TV (ABC) Cedar Rapids, IA


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 9:26:58 pm

Will Shane's method work for 59.94 as well. I was just told by the lead editor that he wants the final quicktime output to be 59.94. Aren't they the same? Should I just convert the footage to 29.97, edit in 29.97 and then export using quicktime conversion and change the frame rate to 59.94? Will that affect the final run time at all?


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Dave LaRonde
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 9:43:47 pm

It would be nice if the lead editor gave you accurate information for delivery.

There is 59.94i: it's normally 1920x1080, and 29.97 INTERLACED frames: two fields per frame(upper field first), hence the 59.94.

There is 59.94p: it's normally 1280x720, and 59.94 complete frames per second. No interlacing.

In extremely rare situations, I suppose you could also have 59.94p at 1920x1080... but this is a very rare beast to be sure.

So you need some clarification before you begin, I'd say....

Dave LaRonde
Former Sr. Promotion Producer
KCRG-TV (ABC) Cedar Rapids, IA


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 11:18:10 pm

I just tried that method and didn't seem to work. When I scroll through the clip it still seems to have the 4:1 pulldown.


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Shane Ross
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 11:25:12 pm

If you make the new clip progressive, it will do that. The clip needs to be interlaced for proper pulldown.

Shane
Little Frog Post
Read my blog, Little Frog in High Def


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 15, 2013 at 11:27:54 pm

Strange, it worked correctly on one clip but not the other. I'll try running it again. Thanks for all your help.


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 18, 2013 at 6:45:52 pm

I guess what was throwing me off was, when I view the clips in quicktime player they have the proper pulldown, but when I view them in FCP they play back at 4:1. My final output looks looks fine though.


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Dave LaRonde
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 18, 2013 at 7:32:38 pm

Just to be thorough, how are you viewing the final output? Specify the hardware.

Dave LaRonde
Former Sr. Promotion Producer
KCRG-TV (ABC) Cedar Rapids, IA


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 18, 2013 at 7:57:03 pm

I'm viewing the final output with quicktime 7.


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Dave LaRonde
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 18, 2013 at 8:20:59 pm

Video monitor or computer monitor?

What happens if you hit pause in a few places? What do you see?

Dave LaRonde
Former Sr. Promotion Producer
KCRG-TV (ABC) Cedar Rapids, IA


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Kevin Blum
Re: How do I avoid the 4:1 pulldown
on Feb 18, 2013 at 8:24:50 pm

I'm playing back on a computer monitor. Like I said, my output is fine. Its when I play the transcoded clips in FCP. It plays 4 frames then freezes for a frame.


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