Not really. there are no built-in constraints/ guides. You could try to use Air Resistance and balance it with your Velocity and Velocity from Motion... This is a bit tricky to set up and obviously particles won't move any more after a while, but it's as good as it gets.
You cannot emit from a path or make them flow in a path, but you can always animate the emitter in a certain path - "draw a shape" with the emitter Position X&Y. I'm not sure but it sounds like that is what you may need.