I'm not an expert at Fur. So I don't know if there are detailed attributes that will allow you to "detach" the fur. I'm assuming that it needs to stick to the original mesh.
So.. the best thing I can think of is to use soft body dynamics. You can convert the original mesh to a soft body and use the original as a "goal". Then attach the fur to the soft body. Attach your dynamics to the soft body. Keyframe the goal settings value to turn it off and let the meshes fly. Turn off renderability for the soft body so all you see is the fur.
I think this method would work but you would need to break your original meshes apart into several pieces. Could lack the detail you need depending on the shot.
Paint FX might have an easier time handling this. You could make the Paint FX curves soft bodies and apply dynamics that way.