The only things that ship with Maya are the maya software renderer, hardware render, vector render, and Mental Ray. Depending on what look you're trying to go for, you might be able to get by with using the software renderer. If you're doing a lot of GI or FG then you'll be stuck with mental ray and as i understand its not the fastest, but its all that I know.
I saw a demo from a guy who uses PRman for maya. He had a crazy displacement mapped (from mudbox) dinosaur with tons of poly's at HD res. Claimed that it only took 15 seconds to render. So.. there are alternatives but not out of the box.