I believe, the graphics board itself simply is the culprit here.
Not that it isn't any of the supported adapters,
it also is a very low-end board and probably hat not enough
processing power and memory, as well, to run Scratch on.
If you don't have a Quadro card at hand, try one of the latest
GeForce GTX (e.g. a 680) models.
Even if you get Scratch to run on this hardware, I'm pretty sure
you won't have much fun using it with a graphics-board like this...