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Shot & Sound at 24, Edit in 24 or 23.976?

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Emily Zhai
Shot & Sound at 24, Edit in 24 or 23.976?
on Aug 20, 2018 at 1:06:57 am
Last Edited By Emily Zhai on Aug 20, 2018 at 1:21:34 am

Hi all, I know it's an old topic but I'm still a little confused after reading tons of articles and threads...

So I'm now on set for my very first feature editing work. The sound person said they don't have 23.98 in their system so they shot in true 24 fps (Alexa Mini) with sound recorded at 24fps (I'm always confused about the frame rate of sound...since I can't see it, can I?). The wav files are 48kHz 24bit.

The film is intended for film festival, theatrical (US/China) and probably online release. My question is should I edit in 23.976 (using interpret footage in Premiere) or should I stay at 24fps in my timeline? Or is it better to just ask DP shoot in 23.976 regardless of the sound? It's only the third day so we can still switch either way. Based on what I read 24fps sometimes cause problem later in the post process. Don't want to cause any trouble for sound editors or dcp. Thank you! Appreciate any input on this!

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David Baud
Re: Shot & Sound at 24, Edit in 24 or 23.976?
on Aug 20, 2018 at 5:09:01 am

Hello Emily,

Usually you want to make decision of your master film frame rate based on your medium delivery, the market you are targeting and the place where you are producing your film. In the USA today most digital films are shot at 23.976fps whereas in Europe it is 24fps. I don't know about China...

In any case you are better off matching your frame rate for pictures & sound! In the USA most productions work at 23.976fps and if you don't specify otherwise that is what post-production services will be expecting.

In your case, if your audio is recorded at 24fps, I would recommend to shoot at 24fps as well. Then I will keep all your post-production at 24fps (editing, VFX, color, etc...) For delivery you will output a 24fps DCP as well which is one of the DCI standard. So for theatrical release it should not be an issue.

If you consider a broadcast/TV release in the USA, you will have to either deliver a 23.976fps or 29.97fps (with pulldown) master which means you will have to do a conversion from your 24fps master. Always check with your distributors what they want/need as a master.

Regarding audio recording, you are right, there is no frames per say, just a speed synchronization with your video recording.

I hope this help,

David Baud
Colorist & Finishing Editor
Denver - Paris

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Emily Zhai
Re: Shot & Sound at 24, Edit in 24 or 23.976?
on Aug 20, 2018 at 11:05:48 am

Thank you David! It helps a lot!

I decided to stick to 24fps in post and it's reassuring to read your reply:)


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