10GbE to a single workstation is actually pretty hard to find any info on. I suppose that is because everyone uses TCP/IP for, well networking. Is 10GbE the best backbone for data transfer until you go up to a SAS connection on a PC?
I can't find is whether 10GbE is going to be 2X, 3X or 4X as fast as USB 3.0.
10 GigE is theoretically 10 Gbps, so its theoretically 2 times faster than USB 3.0 which is 5 Gbps.
In practice, transfer speeds over 10GigE would depend on the drive/RAID speed, network overhead, and connection protocol.
Based on my observations on connecting a 10GigE host (Sony SRPC-4 with a Sony camera data pack) to a MBP with a 10GigE adapter and writing to an external Thunderbolt RAID capable of 800 MB/sec, I got speeds of up to 400 MB/sec. Others have reported speeds up to 500 MB/sec.
This is over SMB, so there's some network overhead too. Maybe some other protocol with less overhead may work faster.
FCP Editor, Edit systems consultant