**[jay agoglia]** *"1) This is assuming I am converting to SD. If I am converting to 1080i 29.97 or 720P 59.94 than what is the secondary reference signal. what changes from the above guidelines?"*
Bi-level (blackburst) is the ONLY reference signal you ever need for any frame rate/resolution on the SRW-5500 aside from 1080/23.976sF tri-level. So any frame rate/resolution you are using that is a multiple of 29.97, use 525/29.97i blackburst, and any frame rate/resolution you are using that is a multiple of 25, use 625/25i blackburst.

**[jay agoglia]** *"2) Does this mean and actual "second" value. What if I need "Frame" accuracy?"*
Think about what you are asking. How can anything that counts to 24 in the same amount of time as counting to 30 ever be equal? It is impossible for a frame rate conversion to be timecode accurate to the frame. So you have to think about what adding pulldown is actually doing.

I've attached a PDF that I made a while back which illustrates this pretty clearly. In case it doesn't show up in the message, it's here:

6356_pulldown.pdf.zip
Look at the timecode columns - you can see how after the first few frames, it's progressively off, due to the difference between counting to 24 and counting to 30. So by using the pulldown add method, you can only be accurate to the second. But that is what people are used to for decades.

To your other question, if you are asking how one can know the machines so well, it is by two methods in concert: one, to read the manual thoroughly and often, and two, live with it for years.