Select the adjustment layer you've created (directly above the layer you want to affect) and choose 'Create Clipping Mask' from the Layers menu. This will have the adjustment layer only affect the layer beneath it (grouping the two together and retaining the clipping of the underlying layer). Holding down "apple/opt g" when having selected the adjustment layer will perform this action as a shortcut.
N.B you can perform this action using multiple adjustment layers affecting the desired Layer by repeating the action on adjustment layers above the 'group' (hope that makes sense). You can also undo the 'Created Clipping Mask' by repeating the above action with the 'grouped' adjustment layer selected.