Recently I faced a problem: I speak too loud while recording sound with my lavalier mic and when I listen recorded sound there are some moments when sound is... well, I dont know the right word but it feels like its hitting ears. Is it possible to fix this in Sony Vegas? Example of file is here: https://goo.gl/qUZ3Ks (listen 1st second, thats what Im talking about)
Your link requires people to download a pretty much unknown file, which is probably why no one has responded. I didn't download it, either, but I can tell you that if your meters peaked/overloaded while recording, there's no way to recover the sound underneath. It's like crushing your blacks in video-- there's no information other than what you're hearing. You might be able to soften it a bit by adjusting the EQ, but that's it.
I listened to it and it suffers from clipping from over modulation. Vegas Pro doesn't have anything to fix this all by itself. Sound Forge has a Clipped Peak Restoration function that might help. iZotope RX also has the ability to restore peaks that are clipped.