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More TV Station Specs and Vegas

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Norm Kaiser
More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 20, 2014 at 12:37:15 am

OK, so I am preparing video for a TV station. I've got the video ready to encode to specs, but then I need to worry about audio. Here are the audio specs:

16 bit 48KHz, 224kbps Minimum
PROGRAMS –
12dB peak audio

What is that part about 12dB peak audio? Does that sound right? Or should it be -12dB? And how do I set for that in Vegas?


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John Rofrano
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 20, 2014 at 3:36:10 am

[Norm Kaiser] "What is that part about 12dB peak audio? Does that sound right? Or should it be -12dB? And how do I set for that in Vegas?"
It must be -12dB peak and you can accomplish this by placing a brick wall limiter like Sony Wave Hammer on the master audio bus and set the Output Level of the Volume Maximizer to -12dB and nothing will be louder than that.

~jr

http://www.johnrofrano.com
http://www.vasst.com



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Norman Black
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 20, 2014 at 4:39:53 am

John, there seems to be a lot of audio effects in Vegas to compress and limit sound.

ExpressFx Dynamics
Graphic Dynamics
Track compressor
Wave Hammer Surround
Multi-band dynamics

The list goes on. There seems to be a lot of overlap. Vegas has a long history so I am guessing that explains some of the overlap. Things like graphic and multi-band have obvious additional capability over others.

Are there any simple'ish words of wisdom/experience about what plug-ins work best, for what and why? Track compressor by name seems to imply use on a track basis but it can be put on anything. Also, it seems you can limit with the compressors.


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John Rofrano
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 20, 2014 at 11:38:21 am

[Norman Black] "Are there any simple'ish words of wisdom/experience about what plug-ins work best, for what and why?"
Sure, here is a really simple view:

ExpressFx Dynamics
Anything with "Express" in the name is a light-weight version of something else. In this case, it is the compressor that comes with the Studio versions of Sony products. They are there for backward compatibility (or if you really prefer to use them) but this is similar to the Track Compressor but without Input and Output gain.

Graphic Dynamics
This is a compressor / expander that can be controlled by an envelope that forms a curve. Rather than having one Threshold and Ratio setting, you can have multiple settings along the dB curve which gives you more control over how it affects the sound at different volumes so this lets you apply more or less compression at different dB levels (e.g., you could set it so that the louder it gets the more compression that's applied).

Track compressor
This is an all purpose compressor that doesn't use a lot of CPU resource so it's appropriate to place on tracks where you will have many instances. It has the standard Threshold and Amount with controllable Attack and Release to determine how fast it kicks in and now slow it lets go. You can also adjust the input and output gain. It affects the entire audio signal unlike Graphic Dynamics and Multi-band dynamics that apples different compression to different ranges of the audio signal.

Wave Hammer Surround
This is really a mastering tool usually applied to the master bus but you can use it on tracks as well. Wave Hammer combines a compressor and volume maximizer with a "brick wall limiter" (i.e., a limit that nothing can go above). It also supports surround sound which is why it's great for placing on the master surround bus.

Multi-band dynamics
This is a compressor that only affects certain frequency bands. It's like placing an EQ that filters out everything except one band and then compressing that leaving everything else alone to pass through. It you only wanted to compress the highs or lows or the vocal range, this would be your tool of choice.

So all of these are compressors with slightly different levels of control and ways to apply them. Graphic Dynamics is controlled by dB range, Multi-band dynamics is controlled by frequency range, Track compressor is your all-purpose compressor, Wave Hammer Surround is a mastering tool with brick wall limiter, and ExpressFx Dynamics is the Studio version of Track Compressor.

~jr

http://www.johnrofrano.com
http://www.vasst.com



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Thayalan Paramasawam
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 12:05:44 am

hi sir..(Mr.John Rofrano)

Very clear explanation.......Thanks

System Details:
Custom Built
Motherboard - Asus M5A99X-EVO,HardDrive1 boot C:SSD Kingston,Processor - Amd FX 8350 4.0/4.2 GHZ,Ram - 16 GB,Graphic Card - Asus Gtx 650 1GB DDR 5,Blu Ray Writer - Plextor PX-B950SA,Operating System - Window 7 Pro 64 Bit and Editing Programe - Sony Vegas Pro 12


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Steve King
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 20, 2014 at 5:42:47 pm

A brick wall limiter is a wonderful tool; however, if you use it indiscriminately it can drastically affect the dynamic range of your audio. Here's how I use it. I examine the track or event that I want to conform to a specific maximum volume. I then raise or lower the overall track amplitude so that most of the peaks lie just below the maximum. That might involve a simple amplitude change or the application of a compressor. Then, as a last step, I apply the brick wall limiter to take care of those rogue peaks that fall above the max amplitude specification. I hear too many tracks that have been hammered to keep levels at spec, without regard to the aesthetic nature of the track. I don't want all my tracks to sound like "Sunday! Sunday! US30 Drag strip!"


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John Rofrano
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 12:33:24 am

[Steve King] "A brick wall limiter is a wonderful tool; however, if you use it indiscriminately it can drastically affect the dynamic range of your audio."
I agree and should have mentioned that. It's no different that adding Broadcast Colors to the master video bus. You want to get your video levels in range and then use Broadcast Colors just in case you missed something because it will clamp down and look very unnatural if you don't. Likewise, adjust your volume to be within range and just peaking at -12dB and then add the brick wall limiter to catch any stray transients. Good advice Steve.
[Steve King] "I don't want all my tracks to sound like "Sunday! Sunday! US30 Drag strip!""
lol... Those were great commercials. For us in the North East US it was RACEWAY PARK!

~jr

http://www.johnrofrano.com
http://www.vasst.com



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Norm Kaiser
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 2:11:15 am

Gentlemen! Thank you so much for this! Such a huge help!


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John Rofrano
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 10:26:09 am

You're welcome Norm. Glad we could help.

~jr

http://www.johnrofrano.com
http://www.vasst.com



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Norman Black
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 4:29:06 pm

[John Rofrano] "Likewise, adjust your volume to be within range and just peaking at -12dB and then add the brick wall limiter to catch any stray transients. Good advice Steve."

This brings to mind a simple feature that would be nice. Have Vegas do a quick full scan of the audio and highlight/select/mark peaks that go above some user specified threshold.

Sitting there and listening in real time watching the peaks meter is slow, and such a scan could be done as fast as the CPU and hard disk can go.

Once you know the trouble spots, you quickly decide how best to attach them. lower volume level, compress or whatever.


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John Rofrano
Re: More TV Station Specs and Vegas
on Mar 21, 2014 at 4:39:59 pm

[Norman Black] "This brings to mind a simple feature that would be nice. Have Vegas do a quick full scan of the audio and highlight/select/mark peaks that go above some user specified threshold."
Actually Final Cut Pro X does something similar. You can't set the threshold but it colors the waveform green, yellow, or red depending on it's amplitude. You can very easily see when audio is peaking on the timeline by looking for the red. Really cool feature that I wish Vegas Pro had.

~jr

http://www.johnrofrano.com
http://www.vasst.com



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