It would appear not, but I am hoping to be proven wrong.
I am dealing with a similar situation and have found that you can select all of your form fields and copy & paste them into another PDF.
So if you make amendments to the INDD file and then export a new version of the PDF, with different name, you can the selact all of the fields from the existing PDF and copy & paste them into this new PDF and they should be in the correct location.
I have done this with a single page document only, so you may have to work page by page to copy & paste them all.
You can retain your PDF form fields and update your document.
When you create your updated PDF, don't overwrite the file that contains the form fields. Open the PDF with your form fields, then go to Document > Replace Pages (Acrobat 8), and navigate to the PDF file containing your updates. This will keep your form fields but replace the page behind the fields.